Risk Factors of Ischemic Heart Disease!

Ischemic Heart Disease

Risk factors of ischemic heart disease

 

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death in adults in the United States, accounting for roughly 610,000 fatalities each year. More than 90% of IHD cases occurred in those who had at least one risk factor. The lack of major risk factors, on the other hand, suggests a substantially reduced probability of myocardial ischemia. This article will go through numerous risk factors for Ischemic heart disease, how to prevent them if they are controllable, and discuss IHD in women.

A higher chance of heart attack has been related to a number of risk factors. Studies classify CAD into two broad categories: non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Many risk factors for myocardial infarction are modifiable, and they account for the bulk of the population's attributable risk (MI)

Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette use, diet, and physical inactivity are all modifiable risk factors. Age, gender, family history, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are non-modifiable risk factors.

 

 

In comparison to women, men are at a higher risk. Due to a decline in estrogen levels, this percentage drops after women reach menopause, increasing the risk for women until it matches that of males. After the age of 65, the risk for heart disease is about the same between the sexes when other risk factors are similar.

 

Your particular risk is strongly influenced by your family's history of cardiovascular disease. A positive family history of heart disease in your father or brother diagnosed before the age of 55 and your mother or sister diagnosed before the age of 65 is generally associated with a twofold increase in the risk of CVD.

Many genes are shared by people of the same ethnicity. African Americans, Hispanics, and Southeast Asians have been shown to have an elevated risk of ischemic heart disease morbidity and mortality in studies.

Evidences suggested that people from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.

 

 

The following modifiable risk factors have a major role in the development of IHD, and individuals with the optimal risk factor profiles had a much reduced probability of premature death from cardiovascular events.

Hypertension affects around one out of every three individuals. Because of the oxidative and mechanical stress imposed on the artery wall, hypertension is considered a major risk factor for heart disease. As a consequence, lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure by more than 10 and 5 mmHg, respectively, resulted in a substantial absolute risk reduction in cardiovascular events.

Alert

When systolic blood pressure is maintained at a goal of 130mmHg, the risk of IHD is reduced.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoking doubled the risk of cardiovascular disease in current smokers and increased the risk by 37% in former smokers over the age of 60.

Note:

The risk of coronary artery disease drops to a level of lifetime nonsmokers within four years of quitting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women and coronary artery disease (CAD):

 

 

Aspirin in primary prevention:

Aspirin has long been used to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Aspirin is indicated for individuals aged 50 to 59 who have a 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but no bleeding risk factors.

The American Heart Association promote seven ideal cardiovascular health metrics, including:

 

Conclusion

In most developed countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality. Identification of risk factors, along with advancements in medical technology, has resulted to a considerable drop in CAD death rates in Western countries during the last forty years. Many CVD risk factors are controllable through particular preventative interventions, providing a potential to minimize the global CVD burden.

 

 

References

  1. Bisciglia, A., Pasceri, V., Irini, D., Varveri, A., & Speciale, G. (2019). Risk Factors for Ischemic Heart Disease. Reviews on recent clinical trials, 14(2), 86-94.
  2. Brown, J. C., Gerhardt, T. E., & Kwon, E. (2020). Risk factors for coronary artery disease.
  3. Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1·25 million people. Lancet 2014; 383:1899.
  4. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364:937.

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